The Value of Silence:

quarter-rests

Today’s post is an introspective post for me. I will be looking at “silence”, its cultural implications in Japan, its use as a form of self-improvement and some stories about silence in the Toyota Production System. I was in a meeting recently, and during my self-reflection time at night, I observed that I did not learn or try to understand the perspective in the meeting. I was not listening because I was trying to prove my knowledge to the other side. I was not being silent or listening. Perhaps, I am a harsh critic of myself. But I have made up my mind that I will be practicing silence more.

One of my favorite sayings about silence is;

Knowledge speaks and wisdom listens.”

This is sometimes attributed to the great musician Jimi Hendrix. However, there is no proof that he did say this. There is a similar quote by Oliver Wendell Holmes;

“It is the province of knowledge to speak and it is the privilege of wisdom to listen.”

I am an avid fan of Japanese Culture and interestingly, silence is an important facet in Japanese culture. It is said that it is tough to negotiate with Japanese businessmen since they employ long periods of silence that others are not used to. In the West, silence is generally unbearable. It is viewed as a break in communication. In Japanese culture, silence is viewed as a communicative act. Silence can be effectively utilized in negotiations since it can make the other side nervous. In the Japanese culture, however, silence has several positive attributes which includes being respectful and polite, and avoiding confrontation.

I am looking at silence in four regards as a practice of self-improvement;

  • Respect for others:

Stephen Covey said “Seek first to understand and then to be understood.” He identified this as the fifth habit of his Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. In Zen, there is a great lesson that you are given two ears and one mouth, and that their use must be in the same ratio – listen two times more than you speak.

  • Self Reflection:

Engaging in silence is a pre-requisite for self-reflection. This allows the mental fog to clear out and the mind to organize better. Think of silence as an act of clearing up space in your mind to allow deep-felt thoughts to come in.

  • Teaching:

Being silent sometimes prompts the other side to keep on talking and perhaps encourage them to come out of their comfort zone. This can have the effect of being a good sounding board for their ideas. This is similar to the Socratic teaching method of asking questions. But in this case, remaining silent allows the other side to focus on their thoughts more and find the solutions to the problems at hand.

  • Effectively Communicating:

This may seem counterintuitive, but engaging in silence can improve your communication. In Japanese calligraphy, the empty space is as important as the written words. This empty space is quite similar to the “negative space” in design. It is the valleys that point our attention at the hills. The same is applicable for the use of effective silence in communication.

Silence in the Toyota Literature:

There are two instances I have seen where “silence” jumped out at me. The first one was in Masaaki Sato’s “Toyota Leaders”, where Sato talked about the ex-President and Chairman of Toyota. Eiji was a person who employed silence in his communication; he considered each question seriously and provided responses after much thought. EIji is hailed by Forbes as the creator of the Modern Version of Toyota. EIji was also a strong supporter of Taiichi Ohno, the father of Toyota Production System, and his “out of the ordinary” methods.

The second instance is from the book “Just-In-Time For Today and Tomorrow”, co-authored by Taiichi Ohno. In the book, Ohno talked about how the other employees were against his methods that would later become the Toyota Production System. All the hate and resentment were absorbed by his two managers, Eiji Toyoda and Saito Naichi. They both allowed Ohno to continue with his methods and to find ways of reducing manufacturing costs. Ohno referred to their relationship as a silent relationship of mutual trust. They both did not question Ohno and in turn Ohno did not ask for their approvals.

“I knew all too well how they worried about me and what I was doing. Yet they never said “Do This!” or “Do that!” For my part, I never had to say “I’d like to do this” or “Please let me do that.”I just did everything I thought had to be done. Had I asked permission, my resolve would have weakened because of the pressure to prove what I was doing. Had either side said anything, the relationship would have collapsed.”

Final Words:

This post was written as a reminder to myself to use silence more. I will finish with a great Zen story on silence;

There once was a monastery that was very strict. Following a vow of silence, no one was allowed to speak at all. But there was one exception to this rule. Every ten years, the monks were permitted to speak just two words. After spending his first ten years at the monastery, one monk went to the head monk. “It has been ten years,” said the head monk. “What are the two words you would like to speak?”

“Bed… hard…” said the monk.

“I see,” replied the head monk.

Ten years later, the monk returned to the head monk’s office. “It has been ten more years,” said the head monk. “What are the two words you would like to speak?”

“Food… stinks…” said the monk.

“I see,” replied the head monk.

Yet another ten years passed and the monk once again met with the head monk who asked, “What are your two words now, after these ten years?”

“I… quit!” said the monk.

“Well, I can see why,” replied the head monk. “All you ever do is complain.”

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was The Spirit of Mottainai in Lean.

Dorothy’s Red Shoes and Toyota:

Silver red shoes

Today’s post is about the theme of adapting and not blindly copying something. Lean is the Western cultural interpretation of what is known as Toyota Production System (TPS). Many companies try to implement TPS by simply copying the tools without understanding the context behind them.

Dorothy’s red ruby shoes are cultural icons from the movie “The Wizard of Oz”. All Dorothy had to do to go home was click the heels three times and command to go home. Poof, like magic she returned home. It is not a widely known fact that Dorothy’s shoes in the actual L Frank Baum’s 1900 book were Silver. The shoes’ color got changed to look “iconic” using the new technology in those days – Technicolor. The shoes appeared extra magical when they were ruby red in the movie. In other words, the movie makers adapted the story to the new technology in order to bring out the best.

What did Toyota Do?

Toyota started off as a Loom Company. Kiichiro Toyoda, son of the founder of the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, was interested in automobiles. Kiichiro started the Toyota Motor Corporation with little experience in large scale manufacturing. Toyota Production System has been tremendously studied and almost everybody tries to emulate Toyota. In those days, the best production system was Ford’s Mass Production System. It was very much akin to the lean manufacturing system today. In fact, Toyota sent Engineers to study the Ford Production System so that they could come back and implement it. One of the two Engineers sent was Eiji Toyoda, Kiichiro’s cousin, and later the Chairman of Toyota. Eiji was a strong supporter of Taiichi Ohno, the father of Toyota Production System.

Toyota was founded from the very beginning with aspirations to become the “Ford of Japan”.(Source: The Toyota Leader, Masaaki Sato 2008)

Toyota discovered that the Ford System as a whole did not work for them. The idea of a moving assembly line and the idea of an employee suggestion system were two concepts that Toyota adopted and started using. However, Toyota could not implement the “large scale” production practices that Ford was using. The Ford System was focusing on producing a limited product line in large quantities. It also focused on increasing the efficiency of each operation by making the lot sizes as large as possible. Inventory was considered as a buffer and a blessing to cover any production interruptions. Toyota simply did not have the capabilities to maintain a large scale production.

Taiichi Ohno found two main flaws in the Ford’s Mass Production System:

  • Only the final assembly line achieved anything resembling continuous production flow. At the component level, there were piles of inventory and very limited flow.
  • Ford was unable to accommodate customer preferences for product diversity. This is akin to the famous quote attributed to Ford – “You can have any color as long as it’s black.”

Source: The Japanese Automobile Industry, Michael Cusumano 1985.

Taiichi Ohno created the Toyota Production System by adapting ideas from Henry Ford, Sakichi Toyoda, Kiichiro Toyoda, and numerous others, including the inventor of the Supermarket System. He learned from failures and the production system evolved through numerous trials and errors. The Toyota Production System is a custom fit tailored suit that fits only Toyota, and nobody else. However, like Ohno did, we can certainly learn and adapt from it.

Why Should I Copy Toyota?

The short answer is – you should not blindly copy Toyota. You have to understand your problems, and then adapt the Toyota Production System and address the solutions to your problems. In an interview in 2001, Hajime Oba, a retired TPS Sensei said the following about blindly copying Toyota:

Big Three managers, he says, use lean techniques simply as a way to slash inventory and are satisfied with that. “What the Big Three are doing is creating a Buddha image and forgetting to inject soul in it,” he says.

My Final Words:

I will finish off with a lesson from the famous martial artist Bruce Lee and a funny story about the dangers of blindly copying. Bruce Lee is also considered to be a great philosopher as well.

His four steps for efficiency were;

  • Research your own experience
  • Absorb what is useful
  • Reject what is useless
  • Add what is essentially your own.

And now the story I heard as a kid in India;

A father was worried about his son’s lack of ability when it came to the English language. English was his son’s second language and he always had trouble with essay writing in the test. The father made his son memorize a short essay “My Best Friend”, since he was sure it would be part of the essay component of the test. The son learned the essay verbatim, and felt good about writing his essay for the test.

Unfortunately, the essay topic was “My Father”. The boy thought for a bit, and then started writing based on what he had memorized.

“I believe I have many fathers. Shankar Pramod is my best father. He lives a few blocks from my house. He comes to visit us every day. My mother loves him very much. A father in need is a father indeed.”

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was The Anatomy of an Isolated Incident.

The Anatomy of an Isolated Incident:

challenger

I read about the death of Bob Ebeling today. He was a NASA contract Engineer from Morton Thiokol who tried to stop the launch of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986. On January 26, 1986 soon after the launch, the Challenger was engulfed in flames. All seven crew members lost their lives in this terrible accident. Famous Nobel laureate Richard Feynman was part of Rogers Commission which investigated the Challenger accident.  Feynman wrote about this investigation in depth in his 1988 book “What Do You Care What Other People Think?”

In today’s post, I will be looking at Isolated Incidents. There are times in my career where I am taken aback by isolated events.  These events happen very rarely, and thus it is not easy to understand the root causes. I will use the Challenger accident as the primary example to look at this. There have been 135 NASA space shuttle missions between 1981 and 2011. Of the 135 missions, 133 flights went as planned, with two ending in disaster.

The O-Ring Fiasco:

The Roger Commission identified that the Challenger accident was caused by a failure in the O-rings that were used to seal a joint on the right solid rocket booster. Bob Ebeling was among the group of Engineers who had warned NASA against the launch based on his concerns about the seals. The O-rings were not proven to work under cold conditions. It was noted that the temperature was below freezing on the day of the launch. Feynman famously demonstrated this by immersing an O-ring in a glass of ice water, and demonstrating that the O-rings were less resilient and that it retained its shape for a very short amount of time. This lack of resilience caused the failure of the seals leading to the Challenger catastrophe.

vlcsnap-2016-03-20-14h56m01s705

The Roger Commission indicated the following issues led to the Challenger accident:

  • Improper material used for the O-ring.
  • Lack of robust testing – the O-ring material was not determined to function as intended by NASA. Even though the O-ring manufacturer gave data to prove the lack of functionality at low temperatures, NASA management did not heed this.
  • Lack of understanding of risk from NASA management.
  • Potential push from management to launch the space shuttle to meet a rush deadline.

Feynman also wrote about the great disparity in the view of risk by the NASA management and the engineers. NASA management assigned a probability of 1 in 100,000 for a failure with loss of vehicle. However, when Feynman asked the engineers, he got values as low as 1 in 100. Feynman reviewed the NASA document that discussed the risk analysis of the space shuttle and was surprised to see extremely low probability values for failures. In his words;

The whole paper was quantifying everything. Just about every nut and bolt was in there. “The chance that a HPHTP pipe will burst is 10-7”. You can’t estimate things like that; a probability of 1 in 10,000,000 is almost impossible to estimate. It was clear that the numbers for each part of the engine were chosen so that when you put everything together you get 1 in 100,000.

Feynman also talked about an engineer being candid with him about his probability value of 1 in 300. He said that he calculated the risk as 1 in 300. However, he did not want to tell Feynman how he got his number!

The Anatomy of an Isolated Incident:

I have come to view the Isolated Incident cause-effect relationship as an equation. This is shown below.

Isolated Incident = Cause(s) + System weak points + Enabling Conditions

The Challenger Accident can be summarized:

Challenger Accident = Material limitation of the O-ring + NASA Management Policies + Cold conditions

The System Weak Point(s) are internal in nature. The enabling conditions, on the other hand, are external in nature. When you combine all the three factors in a perfect storm, you get an isolated incident. If we do not know all of the three factors, we are not able to solve the isolated incident. By itself alone, none of the factors above may cause the problem.

Another example is – when demand goes up, and production doubles. If the process is not robust enough to handle the spike in production, then isolated events can happen.

Pontiac’s Allergy to Vanilla Ice Cream:

I will finish this post with a fantastic story I read from Snopes:

The Pontiac division of General Motors received a complaint in the form of a letter. The letter was from a frustrated customer. He had been trying to contact the company for a while.

He wrote in the letter that he and his family were used to buying ice cream after dinner on a frequent basis. The type of ice cream that is purchased depended upon the mood of the family. He had recently purchased a new Pontiac car, and he had been having issues on his ice cream trips. He had figured out that the new car is allergic to vanilla ice cream.

If he purchased any other flavor, his car would start with no problem. However, if he purchased vanilla ice cream, his car will not start.

“What is there about a Pontiac that makes it not start when I get vanilla ice cream, and easy to start whenever I get any other kind?”, he asked in the letter.

The letter was delivered to the Pontiac President who was very amused by it. He sent an engineer to investigate the fantastic problem. The engineer went with the family three nights to get ice cream in the new car. The first night the family got chocolate ice cream, and the car started with no problem. The second night, they got strawberry. The car again was fine. On the third day, the family got vanilla ice cream; lo and behold the car would not start.

This was repeated on multiple days, and the results were always the same. The engineer was a logical man, and this stumped him. He took notes of everything. The only thing that he could see was time. The family always took the shortest amount of time when they purchased vanilla ice cream. This was because of the store layout. The vanilla ice cream was quite popular and was kept at the front of the store. Suddenly, the engineer identified why the isolated incident happened. “Vapor lock”, he exclaimed. For all the other flavors, the longer time allowed the engine to cool down sufficiently to start without any issues. When the vanilla ice cream was bought, the engine was still too hot for the vapor lock to dissipate.

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was Kintsukuroi and Kaizen.

What is my purpose?

purpose

Peter Drucker declared in his 1954 book “The Practice of Management” that the purpose of a business is to create a customer. In today’s post I will talk about purpose, specifically what do I think my purpose is at work? There is of course the utilitarian answer about my purpose at work – to fulfill my job duties/responsibilities. However, fulfilling the job duties/responsibilities does not always complete my purpose.

The purpose is to create/increase value in anything I do:

Peter Drucker in the book “The Practice of Management” talks about understanding customers. He notes that the manufacturer of gas kitchen stoves should not consider himself to be in competition with only other gas kitchen stove manufacturers. The customer is not just buying a stove. The customer is looking for the easiest way to cook food. There are many forms of stoves/utensils available to the customer that are in direct competition. There are several different ways to cook food including microwave ovens, cooking ranges, grills, etc. Ignoring them will result in loss of business. This example may be outdated. However, the core idea is applicable here. If you are simply fulfilling just your basic job duties/responsibilities, you are like the gas stove manufacturer. You will not grow and develop yourself if you just stick to your defined duties/responsibilities and you will eventually get passed by.

Your purpose is to create/increase value in anything you do. From a Toyotayesque philosophy, this is similar to the Continuous Improvement attitude. You are always trying to improve what you are doing. You are expanding your boundaries and you have a responsibility to develop yourself. One of the two pillars for the Toyota Philosophy identified in the Toyota Way 2001 is “Continuous Improvement”. The first key concept for “Continuous Improvement” is the “Spirit of Challenge”. In Jeffrey Liker’s “The Toyota Way to Lean Leadership”, Liker talks about the Spirit of Challenge as follows;

“Like the two founding Toyoda family members, every Toyota leader is expected not just to excel in his current role but to take on the challenges to achieve a bold vision with energy and enthusiasm.”

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The two Toyoda family members are Sakichi Toyoda and Kiichiro Toyoda. I have referenced them in my last two posts. It is likely that Liker meant every Toyota employee when he said Toyota leader. This type of thinking is instilled from an organization standpoint. To quote Peter Drucker again;

“Most people need to feel that they are here for a purpose, and unless an organization can connect to this need to leave something behind that makes this a better world, or at least a different one, it won’t be successful over time.”

Toyota has a core concept of True North. True North is your ideal state. You can never truly achieve this. However, it is your responsibility to strive moving towards your True North.

Final Words and a story on purpose:

I am a firm believer of taking responsibility and authority to do the right thing, and to develop yourself. One must always try to increase/add value in what they do. Increasing value in what you do ultimately increases your value. This is the Spirit of Challenge. This is your inner purpose.

I will finish off with an anecdote, I heard from the Indian author Shiv Khera (in his words).

16 years ago in Singapore I gave a taxi driver a business card to take me to a particular address. At the last point he circled round the building. His meter read 11$ but he took only 10.

I said Henry, your meter reads 11$ how come you are taking only 10.

He said Sir, I am a taxi driver, I am supposed to be bringing you straight to the destination. Since I did not know the last spot, I had to circle around the building. Had I brought you straight here, the meter would have read 10$. Why should you be paying for my ignorance?

He said Sir, legally, I can claim 11$ but ethically I am entitled to only 10. He further added that Singapore is a tourist destination and many people come here for three or four days. After clearing the immigrations and customs, the first experience is always with the taxi driver and if that is not good, the balance three to four days are not pleasant either. He said Sir I am not a taxi driver, I am the Ambassador of Singapore without a diplomatic passport.

In my opinion he probably did not go to school beyond the 8th grade, but to me he was a professional. To me his behavior reflected pride in performance and character. That day I learnt that one needs more than professional qualification to be a professional.

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was Toyota Production System House – Just-in-Time (JIT) and Jidoka (Part 2).

Wizard of Oz, Camel’s Nose and Being a Change Agent:

oz

In my last post, I talked about learning from Dr. Seuss’ quotes. In his “Greens Eggs and Ham” book, one of the characters(Sam) tries to persuade the other character to eat green eggs and ham. “Try it, try it, you may like it”, Sam says.

Aldean Jakeman commented on this post and stated that the “Green Eggs and Ham” book was her first change management book. This got me thinking about the “Wizard of Oz” story, and the story of the camel’s nose.

Learning from the Wizard of Oz:

There are four main characters in “Wizard of Oz”, written by Frank Baum. These four characters represent a quality characteristic that every change agent needs:

  • Dorothy – the main protagonist of the story. She was swept into the wonderful fantasy land of Oz by a cyclone. All she wants is to go back home to Kansas.
  • Scarecrow – the first friend Dorothy makes on her journey home.
  • Tin Woodman – a character who originally was a real human, but now is completely made of tin. Tin Woodman is the second friend that Dorothy makes.
  • Cowardly Lion – the third and final member of Dorothy’s team.

True North (Home):

“True North” is a strong concept in Toyota Production System (TPS). True North depicts our ideal state. True North is what we are striving towards. We are trying to reach True North. In a TPS/Lean way, Dorothy represents the characteristic of True North, our ideal state. All she wants is to go home (True North). A change agent should form his/her team, like Dorothy did, to reach their goal (true north).

Heart:

The scarecrow represents the quality of “the heart”. A change agent should have his/her heart in the game. This allows you to think from the other person’s viewpoint. Having the heart characteristic makes you realize that this is a win-win, non-zero sum game. The heart represents empathy and compassion, without which you cannot gain the buy-in from your team. You should be open for suggestions and ideas for improvements. Toyota has identified “Respect for Humanity” as one of the two pillars of Toyota Way.

Brain:

Tin Woodman represents “the brain” characteristic. A change agent should never stop learning. You should be smart enough to try things out and learn from your mistakes. You should also be smart enough to realize that you need to train and develop more change agents. A change agent should know how to approach when he/she is trying to implement a change. Here, Brain represents both knowledge and wisdom. A wise change agent will request his/her team to try things out at first. The “for trial only” approach eases them into the actual implementation.

Courage:

Cowardly Lion represents “courage”. A change agent should be brave enough to look back at himself/herself with a critical eye and challenge assumptions. A change agent should be open about the problems, and transparent in communication. At Toyota, they talk about the importance of “Hansei”. “Hansei”, a Japanese term, loosely translated means “self reflection”. This can act as a strong and effective feedback loop that will steer you back on course towards True North. Having courage also means that you are capable of saying “No”. Ultimately, a change agent should be brave enough to stand up for what he/she thinks is right. Winston Churchill, the former UK prime minister, said the following about courage:

“Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen.”

Final Words:

I will finish off with an Arabian story that goes by the name “The Camel’s Nose”. The story has created the phrase “camel’s nose” in English language that is a metaphor for allowing a larger change in the pretense of small incremental changes. This phrase has a negative connotation since the change represents something that is not desirable. Here, I will be presenting it as a tactic for a change agent to encourage their team to implement the change. This story is about a wise camel, and the importance of implementing a change little by little at a time.

It was an unusually cold night in the desert. The camel was outside, tied to the tent. The master was inside the tent, comfortable and getting ready to sleep.

“Master,” the camel said putting his nose under the flap, “it is so cold outside. Can I at least put my nose inside the tent?”

“Sure,” the kind master replied, and rolled over.

A little later, the master rolled over and found that the camel had his whole head inside the tent.

“Master, it feels so nice here. Can I please put my front legs inside the tent too?”, the camel asked.

“Okay, you may”, the master said moving a little toward the edge since the tent was small.

The master again rolled over trying to sleep. A little while later, the camel again said “Master, Master, can I come inside the tent all the way? I will stand inside. It is very cold outside.”

“Yes,” the master said unwittingly. The master went back to sleep.

The next time the master woke up, he found himself outside the tent and cold.

I am not suggesting here that the change agents should be the camel kicking out the master. I am presenting the story to show the importance of taking things a small step at a time.

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was Learning from Dr. Seuss.

Learning From Dr. Seuss:

drseuss

Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel), the renowned children’s book author, was born on this date (March 2nd) in 1904. Interestingly, he used “Dr.” in his pen name since his parents really wanted him to be a doctor. In today’s post, I will look at eight great quotes from him to learn from.

I immigrated to America from India. I did not know Dr. Seuss until I met my wife here in America. I grew up with Enid Blyton, the English author. I very much enjoyed reading the Dr. Seuss books with my kids because of his unique writing style. As I was introducing my three children to his books, I was also learning from Dr. Seuss at the same time.

Here are eight lessons from Dr. Seuss:

  • From there to here, and here to there, funny things are everywhere.(Source – One Fish, Two Fish, Red Fish, Blue Fish)

As Lean practitioners, we can translate this as “from there to here, and here to there, wastes are everywhere”! The funny things are the different wastes! Everything we do has waste in it. Taiichi Ohno is a big proponent of eliminating waste. He made managers stand inside a circle and look for wastes. Wastes forces us to be non-value adding, and increases overall cost.

  • Why fit in when you were born to stand out? (Source – Unknown)

If you try to copy the best, you will only come in second. Trying to copy Toyota does not make sense unless you have the same problems as Toyota. You should try to create your own system – Company XYZ Production System rather than a frail copy of Toyota Production System. Understand your problems and then address them, creating your own production system.

  • Sometimes the questions are complicated and the answers are simple. (Source – Looking Tall by Standing Next to Short People)

This is a true gem. The insurmountable problems become ant hills once they are solved. This is akin to Occam’s razor in some sense. Occam’s razor can be loosely stated as “the simplest answers provide the best explanations”. We have a tendency to complicate things. As an Engineer, I can vouch for this. At Toyota, they talk about using automation as the last resort to improve a process. They push for simple solutions.

  • You have brains in your head. You have feet in your shoes. You can steer yourself in any direction you choose. You’re on your own, and you know what you know. And you are the guy who’ll decide where to go.” (Source – “Oh, the Places You’ll Go!)

You have brains in your head – you need to use them. You have feet in your shoes – you need to go to the Gemba. This is a perfect summation of Genchi Genbutsu – going to the Gemba to learn the actual facts. You have to go to the source, where the action takes place and see for yourself.

  • You’ll miss the best things if you keep your eyes shut.(Source – I Can Read With My Eyes Shut!)

You have to keep your eyes open but you have to observe. Seeing and observing are two different things. When you keep your eyes open, you start to see things. When you see more things, you start to observe things. When you observe things more, you start to understand things more.

  • “It is better to know how to learn than to know. (Source – Unknown)

It’s not the tools system, it is the thinking system. To know and to understand are two different things. To know something makes you rigid in your thinking. To understand something makes you flexible in your thinking.

  • How did it get so late so soon?(Source – Poem by Dr. Seuss)

There is no better time than now to start improving and to start learning. Do not wait for the best idea to happen. Do not wait for the new and improved machine. Do not wait for next month. Now is indeed the right time. As Hillel the Elder said, “If not now, when?”

  • Try them, try them, and you may! Try them and you may, I say.(Source – Green Eggs and Ham)

This is the best way to implement process improvement activities. You can say “try them, try them, you may like them”. All you need them to do is to try the idea out. Once tried, they will provide ideas to improve and make them better. The lesson here is that you should not try to force your ideas, rather ask them to try it out. After all, what is the harm in trying it out? Brian Fitzpatrick, and Ben Collins-Sussman recommends saying “let’s try this for 30 days. If this does not work, we will go back to the way it was.” This approach helps in getting buy-in. Almost always, they will start using the new method. If they do not, at least you will get feedback as to why the new method does not work.

Thank you Dr. Seuss for everything you have done.

Happy Birthday!

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was Be an Amateur at the Gemba.

Who is right?

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I came across a great graphic that I thought I should share.

right

The graphic above shows the importance of understanding the perception of the other party involved. This helps us in understanding their viewpoint.

It is also important as a leader in your organization that when you are trying to spread your vision, to make sure you understand how your employees view your vision. The view at the top of the organization may not match the view at the bottom of the organization.

The view at the top of the organization may not match the view at the bottom of the organization.

Alexander the Great and the monk:

There is a great story I heard from Devdutt Pattanaik, that explains this really well. I have paraphrased it.

Alexander the great reached India after conquering a lot of nations. On his path to conquer India, he met a monk. The monk was sitting on a rock enjoying the beauty of nature. The monk was naked, and belonged to a sect of Jainism.

Alexander watched the monk for a while. The monk was just sitting and smiling, totally oblivious of Alexander watching him.

“What are you doing?” Alexander asked the monk.

“I am enjoying being nothing.” the monk looked at Alexander, and said.

“What a fool to sit there and do nothing?” Alexander laughed at him. Alexander saw the monk as wasting his life away, doing nothing.

“What are you doing?” the monk asked Alexander.

“I am conquering the world”, Alexander replied with great pride.

Now the monk started laughing at Alexander.

“What a fool to pursue such a futile effort?” the monk thought to himself.

The next time, you face an opposing view; try to understand where the other party is coming from. What is his viewpoint? Are you the monk or Alexander?

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was Lean and the Mountain.

Brooks’ law – Mythical Man-Month

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I recently finished reading the book “The Mythical Man-Month”. This book was written by Frederick Brooks Jr. and first published in 1975. This book has been quoted as “the Bible of Software Engineering.” It is based on the experiences of the author at IBM while managing the development of OS/360.

Although the topic of the book is software engineering, I believe that the principles identified in the book are applicable to any project.

The main idea of the book is about the mythical man-month which may be intuitive to some people. This basically can be explained as follows;

  • Project cost is proportional to the number of people involved. Cost = number of men * number of months.
  • Project progress is not proportional to the number of people involved. Number of men or people and months are not interchangeable.

Brooks says “Man-month as a unit for measuring the size of the job is a dangerous and deceptive myth.

This book also gave us Brook’s law. Brook’s law can be stated as follows;

“Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later.”

There is some resemblance to Braess’ paradox in traffic networks, which can be loosely stated as “Adding extra capacity to a network in some cases brings down the overall performance of the network”. I will discuss more about Braess’ paradox at a later time.

Brooks’ Law:

There are multiple factors that make Brook’s law work. The first is the amount of time needed for a new member to get accustomed to the project. This is treated as “ramp-up” time. The second factor is communication. As more members are added to a team, the complexity of communication requirements increases. This is referred to as communication overhead. The third factor is the project type. If there are sequential tasks that are independent in nature, this results in delays due to the first two factors. When a task cannot be partitioned because of sequential constraints, the application of more effort has no effect on the schedule. In Brooks’ words; “The bearing of a child takes nine months, no matter how many women are assigned.”

Why Did the Tower of Babel Fall?

This is perhaps the section that I enjoyed the most. Brooks performs a “management audit” on the Babel project. The tower of Babel is a famous story in Bible, in the book of Genesis. The people of the world wanted to build a tower that reached to the heavens. In the story, the people spoke only one language, and God made the people speak in different languages so that they could not understand each other, and the tower was never completed.

Brooks reviewed the following factors for the “Babel Project”;

A clear mission: There was a clear mission – to build the tower.

Manpower: There was plenty of manpower.

Materials: Clay and asphalt were abundant.

Time: There was no time constraint noted in the story.

Technology: The technology available at that time was adequate.

The Tower of Babel was never built because of two reasons – communication and organization. Brooks explains that lack of effective communication led to lack of coordination. When coordination failed, the project came to a halt. In today’s world, lack of effective communication is very relevant. In my view, the point of organization is about system optimization. Pursuit of local optimization will always result in a decrease of system performance.

I highly encourage the reader to read the Mythical Man-Month book. The first edition is available electronically here.

Funny Project Management Story:

I will end with a story I heard about project management.

A man is flying in a hot air balloon and realizes he is lost. He reduces height and spots a man down below. He lowers the balloon further and shouts:

“Excuse me, can you help me? I promised my friend, I would meet him half an hour ago, but I don’t know where I am.”

The man below says, “Yes, you are in a hot air balloon, hovering approximately 30 feet above this field. You are between 40 and 42 degrees North latitude, and between 58 and 60 degrees West longitude.”

“You must be an Engineer,” says the balloonist.

“I am,” replies the man. “How did you know?”

“Well,” says the balloonist, “everything you have told me is technically correct, but I have no idea what to make of your information, and the fact is I am still lost.”

The man below says, “You must be a project manager”

“I am,” replies the balloonist, “but how did you know?”

“Well,” says the man, “you don’t know where you are or where you are going. You have made a promise which you have no idea how to keep, and you expect me to solve your problem. The fact is you are in the exact same position you were in before we met, but now it is somehow my fault.”

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was about “The Mystery of Missing Advent Calendar Chocolates”.

The Mystery of Missing Advent Calendar Chocolates:

advent

It is Christmas time, which means it is advent calendar time for the kids and for those of us who are kids at heart. My wife bought our kids chocolate advent calendars from Trader Joe’s. For those who do not know advent calendars, these are countdown calendars to Christmas starting on December 1st. Each day has a window which you can open to reveal a chocolate. Each day has a uniquely shaped chocolate, a Christmas tree, a stocking etc. The kids love this.

We keep the advent calendars on the top of our refrigerator to ensure they are not tempted to eat all of the chocolate at once. This morning, I found the advent calendars on the table and a crying Annie. Annie is our youngest daughter. She was very upset.

“I did not get any chocolate today from my calendar”, she said while crying.

“You must have eaten it already”, was my response. Of course, the kids eat chocolate and sometimes they are impatient and eat more than one day’s worth. In my mind, it was a reasonable assumption to make.

Annie explained that she opened the window with 6 on it and did not find any chocolate. I looked at the calendar, and sure enough, the window for day 6 on it was open. My initial hypothesis stayed the same – Annie ate the chocolate, and she is not telling me the entire truth.

My wife suggested she open the window for day 7 and eat that chocolate. Annie then proceeded to open the window with 7 on it, in front of me. Lo and behold, it did not have any chocolate. Annie looked at me with sad eyes. I realized, I was wrong to have assumed that Annie had eaten the chocolate!

“This is a mystery”, said Audrey, her twin sister.

Now I had a second hypothesis – those darn calendar makers; they do not know what they are doing. They obviously missed filling all the spots with chocolate. As a Quality Engineer, I have seen operator errors. I have now jumped to my second hypothesis.

Having thought about for a bit, I looked at the available information. Based on what Annie told me, the chocolate was not in its spot for two consecutive days. These calendars did not have the numbers in the consecutive order. They were placed in random order. It did not strike to me that two candies at different locations would be missing candy. She had opened a spot between 6 and 7 on an earlier day, and it had the candy.

I had a reasonable hypothesis – the operator/equipment missed the spots in the calendar. I have seen it happen before in different environments. But still, something was not right.

I proceeded to put the advent calendar back onto the top of the refrigerator. Then I thought of something. I wanted to test the calendar more. I carefully opened the calendar from the base. It was a card board box with a plastic tray inside.

Just then I found out what happened! On multiple places, the chocolate was missing. The chocolate were misplaced from its cavities. They were all gathered at the bottom of the box. It could be from the transportation. It could be the end user i.e. my excited young daughter who shook the calendar. It could be the design of the calendar that allows extra space between the tray and the cardboard.

The most important thing was that Annie was now happy that she got her candies. Audrey was happy that we indeed had a mystery that we could solve. My wife and I were happy that our kids were happy.

Final Words:

This personal story has made me realize again that we should not jump to conclusions. Listen to that tiny little voice that says “there is something more to this”…

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was about “Lady Tasting Tea”.

Let’s Talk About Tea:

wonderland

This week, I was talking to one of my colleagues and going off on a tangent we began discussing tea. His parents are from UK. Today’s post is inspired by that conversation.

Milk First or Tea First:

The question of whether to add milk first or tea first is an interesting one. As part of writing this post, I did some research on this one. The first documented account of milk being added to tea is from Johan Nieuhof (1618-1672), a steward of the then Dutch ambassador to China. He wrote about adding one fourth of warm milk to tea with salt. The idea of using milk with tea was made popular in Europe by social critic Marie de Rabutin Chantal, the Marquise de Seven in 1680.

The socially correct protocol, according to Douglas Adams (author of Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy) and many others is to add milk in after tea. There are many anecdotes on why this is the case. The most popular version is about the quality of tea cups back in the day. Pouring hot tea first broke the low quality cups. The upper class of the society showed off their high quality cups by pouring hot tea first and then milk. The people who could not afford high quality tea cups poured milk first and then tea. Another reason could be also the way the process of making tea was documented. As noted above, the documented process was to add milk to tea.

George Orwell even wrote an essay on making tea called “A Nice Cup of Tea”. His preference was to add tea first and then milk. His logic was as follows;

One should pour tea into the cup first. This is one of the most controversial points of all; indeed in every family in Britain there are probably two schools of thought on the subject. The milk-first school can bring forward some fairly strong arguments, but I maintain that my own argument is unanswerable. This is that, by putting the tea in first and stirring as one pours, one can exactly regulate the amount of milk whereas one is liable to put in too much milk if one does it the other way round.

Douglas Adams on the other hand liked to add milk first even though it was not the socially correct protocol. Today, scientists will tell you that the proper way of making tea is to add the milk first and then tea. Milk proteins when exposed to a temperature above 75 degrees C (167 degrees F) will start to degrade through the process of denaturation. This is more prone to happen when milk is added to tea rather than when tea is added to milk.

The Lady Tasting Tea:

The story of the lady tasting tea is perhaps the most fantastic story in the field of statistics. There are a few different versions as to where the incident took place. The story goes that in an English afternoon in 1920’s, a statistician, a chemist and an algologist were sitting together. The statistician offered to make tea, and proceeded to pour tea and then milk. The algologist, a lady (hence the name a lady tasting tea) objected to the process. She told the statistician that she preferred to have the milk poured before tea. She claimed that she could tell the difference. The chemist who was the fiancée of the algologist immediately wanted to test her claim, as any warm blooded scientist would do. The statistician proceeded to create an impromptu test for the lady. He created four cups of tea with milk first, and then four cups of tea with tea first. He randomized the cups using a published collection of random sampling numbers. The lady was informed of the test protocol and then she tasted each cup and identified all the cups accurately, thus standing by her claim.

The statistician was Sir Ronald Fisher, the chemist was Dr. William A Roach and the lady algologist was Dr. Blanche Muriel Bristol. The story was documented by Sir Fisher in the groundbreaking book “The Design of Experiments” and in his paper “The Mathematics of a Lady Tasting Tea”. The probability of the lady getting all the results correct was 1/70 = 0.014. This value is less than the magical 0.05. Interestingly, Sir Fisher wrote the following about the 0.05 value in the paper;

“It is usual and convenient for experimenters to take 5 percent, as a standard level of significance…”

If the lady had gotten one result incorrect, the p-value would had been 0.243, and the testers would have failed to reject the null hypothesis that the lady has no ability to tell the difference between the two styles of making tea. Thus, one can say the test is not fair since if the lady failed once, it would not help justify her claim. In the paper, Sir Fisher advised that to improve the test, one should use 6 cups each of tea. The p-value of getting one incorrect is only 0.04, which is still less than 0.05. Thus, the lady has a little more leeway.

This story helped explain the idea of randomization and significance testing. The test’s efficacy is improved further if the total number of particular styles were kept secret. Dr. Bristol was told about the exact number of each style of tea beforehand.

The Answer to the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything:

In Hitchhiker’s Guide to Galaxy, the answer to the Ultimate Question of life, the universe and everything is given as 42! I came across a possible explanation during my research for this post based on Douglas Adam’s passion for tea.

42 = fortytwo

For tea two.

Two for tea!

Always keep on learning…

In case you missed it, my last post was about Respect for Humanity.